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Amateur Extra Class Exam Question Pool- Subelement E-2

Subelement E-1           Subelement E-2          Subelement E-3          Subbelement E-4          Subelement E-5
Subelement E-6           Subelement E-7          Subelement E-8          Subbelement E-9          Subelement E-0

SUBELEMENT E2 - OPERATING PROCEDURES [5 Exam Questions - 5 Groups]



E2A -  Amateur radio in space: amateur satellites; orbital mechanics; frequencies and modes; satellite hardware; satellite operations




What is the direction of an ascending pass for an amateur satellite?

A. From west to east

B. From east to west

C. From south to north

D. From north to south




Which of the following occurs when a satellite is using an inverting linear transponder?

A. Doppler shift is reduced because the uplink and downlink shifts are in opposite directions

B. Signal position in the band is reversed

C. Upper sideband on the uplink becomes lower sideband on the downlink, and vice versa

D. All these choices are correct




How is the signal inverted by an inverting linear transponder?

A. The signal is detected and remodulated on the reverse sideband

B. The signal is passed through a non-linear filter

C. The signal is reduced to I and Q components and the Q component is filtered out

D. The signal is passed through a mixer and the difference rather than the sum is transmitted




What is meant by the term “mode” as applied to an amateur radio satellite?

A. Whether the satellite is in a low earth or geostationary orbit

B. The satellite’s uplink and downlink frequency bands

C. The satellite’s orientation with respect to the Earth

D. Whether the satellite is in a polar or equatorial orbit




What do the letters in a satellite’s mode designator specify?

A. Power limits for uplink and downlink transmissions

B. The location of the ground control station

C. The polarization of uplink and downlink signals

D. The uplink and downlink frequency ranges




What are Keplerian elements?

A. Parameters that define the orbit of a satellite

B. Phase reversing elements in a Yagi antenna

C. High-emission heater filaments used in magnetron tubes

D. Encrypting codes used for spread spectrum modulation




Which of the following types of signals can be relayed through a linear transponder?

A. FM and CW


C. PSK and packet

D. All these choices are correct




Why should effective radiated power to a satellite that uses a linear transponder be limited?

A. To prevent creating errors in the satellite telemetry

B. To avoid reducing the downlink power to all other users

C. To prevent the satellite from emitting out-of-band signals

D. To avoid interfering with terrestrial QSOs




What do the terms “L band” and “S band” specify regarding satellite communications?

A. The 23 centimeter and 13 centimeter bands

B. The 2 meter and 70 centimeter bands

C. FM and Digital Store-and-Forward systems

D. Which sideband to use




What type of satellite appears to stay in one position in the sky?


B. Geostationary

C. Geomagnetic





What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation?

A. A linearly polarized antenna

B. A circularly polarized antenna

C. An isotropic antenna

D. A log-periodic dipole array




What is the purpose of digital store-and-forward functions on an amateur radio satellite?

A. To upload operational software for the transponder

B. To delay download of telemetry between satellites

C. To store digital messages in the satellite for later download by other stations

D. To relay messages between satellites




Which of the following techniques is normally used by low Earth orbiting digital satellites to relay messages around the world?

A. Digipeating

B. Store-and-forward

C. Multi-satellite relaying

D. Node hopping










E2B -  Television practices: fast scan television standards and techniques; slow scan television standards and techniques


How many times per second is a new frame transmitted in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?

A. 30

B. 60

C. 90

D. 120




How many horizontal lines make up a fast-scan (NTSC) television frame?

A. 30

B. 60

C. 525

D. 1080




How is an interlaced scanning pattern generated in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?

A. By scanning two fields simultaneously

B. By scanning each field from bottom to top

C. By scanning lines from left to right in one field and right to left in the next

D. By scanning odd numbered lines in one field and even numbered lines in the next




How is color information sent in analog SSTV?

A. Color lines are sent sequentially

B. Color information is sent on a 2.8 kHz subcarrier

C. Color is sent in a color burst at the end of each line

D. Color is amplitude modulated on the frequency modulated intensity signal




Which of the following describes the use of vestigial sideband in analog fast-scan TV transmissions?

A. The vestigial sideband carries the audio information

B. The vestigial sideband contains chroma information

C. Vestigial sideband reduces bandwidth while allowing for simple video detector circuitry

D. Vestigial sideband provides high frequency emphasis to sharpen the picture




What is vestigial sideband modulation?

A. Amplitude modulation in which one complete sideband and a portion of the other are transmitted

B. A type of modulation in which one sideband is inverted

C. Narrow-band FM modulation achieved by filtering one sideband from the audio before frequency modulating the carrier

D. Spread spectrum modulation achieved by applying FM modulation following single sideband amplitude modulation




What is the name of the signal component that carries color information in NTSC video?

A. Luminance

B. Chroma

C. Hue

D. Spectral intensity




What technique allows commercial analog TV receivers to be used for fast-scan TV operations on the 70 cm band?

A. Transmitting on channels shared with cable TV

B. Using converted satellite TV dishes

C. Transmitting on the abandoned TV channel 2

D. Using USB and demodulating the signal with a computer sound card




What hardware, other than a receiver with SSB capability and a suitable computer, is needed to decode SSTV using Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)?

A. A special IF converter

B. A special front end limiter

C. A special notch filter to remove synchronization pulses

D. No other hardware is needed




What aspect of an analog slow-scan television signal encodes the brightness of the picture?

A. Tone frequency

B. Tone amplitude

C. Sync amplitude

D. Sync frequency




What is the function of the Vertical Interval Signaling (VIS) code sent as part of an SSTV transmission?

A. To lock the color burst oscillator in color SSTV images

B. To identify the SSTV mode being used

C. To provide vertical synchronization

D. To identify the call sign of the station transmitting




What signals SSTV receiving software to begin a new picture line?

A. Specific tone frequencies

B. Elapsed time

C. Specific tone amplitudes

D. A two-tone signal







E2C -  Operating methods: contest and DX operating; remote operation techniques; Cabrillo format; QSLing; RF network connected systems




What indicator is required to be used by U.S.-licensed operators when operating a station via remote control and the remote transmitter is located in the U.S.?

A. / followed by the USPS two-letter abbreviation for the state in which the remote station is located

B. /R# where # is the district of the remote station

C. / followed by the ARRL Section of the remote station

D. No additional indicator is required




Which of the following best describes the term “self-spotting” in connection with HF contest operating?

A. The often-prohibited practice of posting one’s own call sign and frequency on a spotting network

B. The acceptable practice of manually posting the call signs of stations on a spotting network

C. A manual technique for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a station’s frequency before calling that station

D. An automatic method for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a station’s frequency before calling that station




From which of the following bands is amateur radio contesting generally excluded?

A. 30 meters

B. 6 meters

C. 2 meters

D. 33 centimeters




Which of the following frequencies are sometimes used for amateur radio mesh networks?

A. HF frequencies where digital communications are permitted

B. Frequencies shared with various unlicensed wireless data services

C. Cable TV channels 41 through 43

D. The 60 meter band channel centered on 5373 kHz




What is the function of a DX QSL Manager?

A. To allocate frequencies for DXpeditions

B. To handle the receiving and sending of confirmation cards for a DX station

C. To run a net to allow many stations to contact a rare DX station

D. To relay calls to and from a DX station




During a VHF/UHF contest, in which band segment would you expect to find the highest level of SSB or CW activity?

A. At the top of each band, usually in a segment reserved for contests

B. In the middle of each band, usually on the national calling frequency

C. In the weak signal segment of the band, with most of the activity near the calling frequency

D. In the middle of the band, usually 25 kHz above the national calling frequency




What is the Cabrillo format?

A. A standard for submission of electronic contest logs

B. A method of exchanging information during a contest QSO

C. The most common set of contest rules

D. The rules of order for meetings between contest sponsors




Which of the following contacts may be confirmed through the U.S. QSL bureau system?

A. Special event contacts between stations in the U.S.

B. Contacts between a U.S. station and a non-U.S. station

C. Repeater contacts between U.S. club members

D. Contacts using tactical call signs




What type of equipment is commonly used to implement an amateur radio mesh network?

A. A 2 meter VHF transceiver with a 1200 baud modem

B. An optical cable connection between the USB ports of 2 separate computers

C. A wireless router running custom firmware

D. A 440 MHz transceiver with a 9600 baud modem




Why might a DX station state that they are listening on another frequency?

A. Because the DX station may be transmitting on a frequency that is prohibited to some responding stations

B. To separate the calling stations from the DX station

C. To improve operating efficiency by reducing interference

D. All these choices are correct




How should you generally identify your station when attempting to contact a DX station during a contest or in a pileup?

A. Send your full call sign once or twice

B. Send only the last two letters of your call sign until you make contact

C. Send your full call sign and grid square

D. Send the call sign of the DX station three times, the words “this is,” then your call sign three times




What technique do individual nodes use to form a mesh network?

A. Forward error correction and Viterbi codes

B. Acting as store-and-forward digipeaters

C. Discovery and link establishment protocols

D. Custom code plugs for the local trunking systems







E2D -  Operating methods: VHF and UHF digital modes and procedures; APRS; EME procedures; meteor scatter procedures




Which of the following digital modes is designed for meteor scatter communications?


B. MSK144

C. Hellschreiber





Which of the following is a good technique for making meteor scatter contacts?

A. 15-second timed transmission sequences with stations alternating based on location

B. Use of special digital modes

C. Short transmissions with rapidly repeated call signs and signal reports

D. All these choices are correct




Which of the following digital modes is especially useful for EME communications?

A. MSK144


C. Olivia

D. JT65




What technology is used to track, in real time, balloons carrying amateur radio transmitters?

A. Ultrasonics

B. Bandwidth compressed LORAN


D. Doppler shift of beacon signals




What is one advantage of the JT65 mode?

A. Uses only a 65 Hz bandwidth

B. The ability to decode signals which have a very low signal-to-noise ratio

C. Easily copied by ear if necessary

D. Permits fast-scan TV transmissions over narrow bandwidth




Which of the following describes a method of establishing EME contacts?

A. Time synchronous transmissions alternately from each station

B. Storing and forwarding digital messages

C. Judging optimum transmission times by monitoring beacons reflected from the moon

D. High-speed CW identification to avoid fading




What digital protocol is used by APRS?


B. 802.11

C. AX.25





What type of packet frame is used to transmit APRS beacon data?

A. Unnumbered Information

B. Disconnect

C. Acknowledgement

D. Connect




What type of modulation is used for JT65 contacts?

A. Multi-tone AFSK



D. IEEE 802.11




How can an APRS station be used to help support a public service communications activity?

A. An APRS station with an emergency medical technician can automatically transmit medical data to the nearest hospital

B. APRS stations with General Personnel Scanners can automatically relay the participant numbers and time as they pass the check points

C. An APRS station with a Global Positioning System unit can automatically transmit information to show a mobile station’s position during the event

D. All these choices are correct




Which of the following data are used by the APRS network to communicate station location?

A. Polar coordinates

B. Time and frequency

C. Radio direction finding spectrum analysis

D. Latitude and longitude









E2E -  Operating methods: operating HF digital modes



Which of the following types of modulation is common for data emissions below 30 MHz?

A. DTMF tones modulating an FM signal


C. Pulse modulation

D. Spread spectrum




What do the letters FEC mean as they relate to digital operation?

A. Forward Error Correction

B. First Error Correction

C. Fatal Error Correction

D. Final Error Correction




How is the timing of FT4 contacts organized?

A. By exchanging ACK/NAK packets

B. Stations take turns on alternate days

C. Alternating transmissions at 7.5 second intervals

D. It depends on the lunar phase




What is indicated when one of the ellipses in an FSK crossed-ellipse display suddenly disappears?

A. Selective fading has occurred

B. One of the signal filters is saturated

C. The receiver has drifted 5 kHz from the desired receive frequency

D. The mark and space signal have been inverted




Which of these digital modes does not support keyboard-to-keyboard operation?



C. PSK31





What is the most common data rate used for HF packet?

A. 48 baud

B. 110 baud

C. 300 baud

D. 1200 baud




Which of the following is a possible reason that attempts to initiate contact with a digital station on a clear frequency are unsuccessful?

A. Your transmit frequency is incorrect

B. The protocol version you are using is not supported by the digital station

C. Another station you are unable to hear is using the frequency

D. All these choices are correct




Which of the following HF digital modes can be used to transfer binary files?

A. Hellschreiber







Which of the following HF digital modes uses variable-length coding for bandwidth efficiency?



C. MT63

D. PSK31




Which of these digital modes has the narrowest bandwidth?


B. 170 Hz shift, 45-baud RTTY

C. PSK31

D. 300-baud packet




What is the difference between direct FSK and audio FSK?

A. Direct FSK applies the data signal to the transmitter VFO, while AFSK transmits tones via phone

B. Direct FSK occupies less bandwidth

C. Direct FSK can transmit faster baud rates

D. Only direct FSK can be decoded by computer




How do ALE stations establish contact?

A. ALE constantly scans a list of frequencies, activating the radio when the designated call sign is received

B. ALE radios monitor an internet site for the frequency they are being paged on

C. ALE radios send a constant tone code to establish a frequency for future use

D. ALE radios activate when they hear their signal echoed by back scatter




Which of these digital modes has the fastest data throughput under clear communication conditions?


B. 170 Hz shift, 45 baud RTTY

C. PSK31

D. 300 baud packet


Subelement E-1           Subelement E-2          Subelement E-3          Subbelement E-4          Subelement E-5
Subelement E-6           Subelement E-7          Subelement E-8          Subbelement E-9          Subelement E-0
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