Amateur Extra Class Exam Question Pool- Subelement E-2

Subelement E-1           Subelement E-2          Subelement E-3          Subbelement E-4          Subelement E-5
Subelement E-6           Subelement E-7          Subelement E-8          Subbelement E-9          Subelement E-0

SUBELEMENT E2 - OPERATING PROCEDURES [5 Exam Questions - 5 Groups]



E2A -  Amateur radio in space: amateur satellites; orbital mechanics; frequencies and modes; satellite hardware; satellite operations; experimental telemetry applications




What is the direction of an ascending pass for an amateur satellite?

A. From west to east

B. From east to west

C. From south to north

D. From north to south




What is the direction of a descending pass for an amateur satellite?

A. From north to south

B. From west to east

C. From east to west

D. From south to north




What is the orbital period of an Earth satellite?

A. The point of maximum height of a satellite's orbit

B. The point of minimum height of a satellite's orbit

C. The time it takes for a satellite to complete one revolution around the Earth

D. The time it takes for a satellite to travel from perigee to apogee




What is meant by the term mode as applied to an amateur radio satellite?

A. The type of signals that can be relayed through the satellite

B. The satellite's uplink and downlink frequency bands

C. The satellite's orientation with respect to the Earth

D. Whether the satellite is in a polar or equatorial orbit




What do the letters in a satellite's mode designator specify?

A. Power limits for uplink and downlink transmissions

B. The location of the ground control station

C. The polarization of uplink and downlink signals

D. The uplink and downlink frequency ranges




On what band would a satellite receive signals if it were operating in mode U/V?

A. 435 MHz - 438 MHz

B. 144 MHz - 146 MHz

C. 50.0 MHz - 50.2 MHz

D. 29.5 MHz - 29.7 MHz




Which of the following types of signals can be relayed through a linear transponder?

A. FM and CW


C. PSK and Packet

D. All of these choices are correct




Why should effective radiated power to a satellite which uses a linear transponder be limited?

A. To prevent creating errors in the satellite telemetry

B. To avoid reducing the downlink power to all other users

C. To prevent the satellite from emitting out-of-band signals

D. To avoid interfering with terrestrial QSOs




What do the terms L band and S band specify with regard to satellite communications?

A. The 23 centimeter and 13 centimeter bands

B. The 2 meter and 70 centimeter bands

C. FM and Digital Store-and-Forward systems

D. Which sideband to use




Why may the received signal from an amateur satellite exhibit a rapidly repeating fading effect?

A. Because the satellite is spinning

B. Because of ionospheric absorption

C. Because of the satellite's low orbital altitude

D. Because of the Doppler Effect




What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation?

A. A linearly polarized antenna

B. A circularly polarized antenna

C. An isotropic antenna

D. A log-periodic dipole array




What is one way to predict the location of a satellite at a given time?

A. By means of the Doppler data for the specified satellite

B. By subtracting the mean anomaly from the orbital inclination

C. By adding the mean anomaly to the orbital inclination

D. By calculations using the Keplerian elements for the specified satellite




What type of satellite appears to stay in one position in the sky?


B. Geostationary

C. Geomagnetic





What technology is used to track, in real time, balloons carrying amateur radio transmitters?

A. Radar

B. Bandwidth compressed LORAN


D. Doppler shift of beacon signals










E2B -  Television practices: fast scan television standards and techniques; slow scan television standards and techniques




How many times per second is a new frame transmitted in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?

A. 30

B. 60

C. 90

D. 120




How many horizontal lines make up a fast-scan (NTSC) television frame?

A. 30

B. 60

C. 525

D. 1080




How is an interlaced scanning pattern generated in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?

A. By scanning two fields simultaneously

B. By scanning each field from bottom to top

C. By scanning lines from left to right in one field and right to left in the next

D. By scanning odd numbered lines in one field and even numbered lines in the next




What is blanking in a video signal?

A. Synchronization of the horizontal and vertical sync pulses

B. Turning off the scanning beam while it is traveling from right to left or from bottom to top

C. Turning off the scanning beam at the conclusion of a transmission

D. Transmitting a black and white test pattern




Which of the following is an advantage of using vestigial sideband for standard fast- scan TV transmissions?

A. The vestigial sideband carries the audio information

B. The vestigial sideband contains chroma information

C. Vestigial sideband reduces bandwidth while allowing for simple video detector circuitry

D. Vestigial sideband provides high frequency emphasis to sharpen the picture




What is vestigial sideband modulation?

A. Amplitude modulation in which one complete sideband and a portion of the other are transmitted

B. A type of modulation in which one sideband is inverted

C. Narrow-band FM modulation achieved by filtering one sideband from the audio before frequency modulating the carrier

D. Spread spectrum modulation achieved by applying FM modulation following single sideband amplitude modulation




What is the name of the signal component that carries color information in NTSC video?

A. Luminance

B. Chroma

C. Hue

D. Spectral Intensity




Which of the following is a common method of transmitting accompanying audio with amateur fast-scan television?

A. Frequency-modulated sub-carrier

B. A separate VHF or UHF audio link

C. Frequency modulation of the video carrier

D. All of these choices are correct




What hardware, other than a receiver with SSB capability and a suitable computer, is needed to decode SSTV using Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)?

A. A special IF converter

B. A special front end limiter

C. A special notch filter to remove synchronization pulses

D. No other hardware is needed




Which of the following is an acceptable bandwidth for Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) based voice or SSTV digital transmissions made on the HF amateur bands?

A. 3 KHz

B. 10 KHz

C. 15 KHz

D. 20 KHz




What is the function of the Vertical Interval Signaling (VIS) code sent as part of an SSTV transmission?

A. To lock the color burst oscillator in color SSTV images

B. To identify the SSTV mode being used

C. To provide vertical synchronization

D. To identify the call sign of the station transmitting




How are analog SSTV images typically transmitted on the HF bands?

A. Video is converted to equivalent Baudot representation

B. Video is converted to equivalent ASCII representation

C. Varying tone frequencies representing the video are transmitted using PSK

D. Varying tone frequencies representing the video are transmitted using single sideband




How many lines are commonly used in each frame of an amateur slow-scan color television picture?

A. 30 or 60

B. 60 or 100

C. 128 or 256

D. 180 or 360




What aspect of an amateur slow-scan television signal encodes the brightness of the picture?

A. Tone frequency

B. Tone amplitude

C. Sync amplitude

D. Sync frequency




What signals SSTV receiving equipment to begin a new picture line?

A. Specific tone frequencies

B. Elapsed time

C. Specific tone amplitudes

D. A two-tone signal




Which is a video standard used by North American Fast Scan ATV stations?



C. Scottie





What is the approximate bandwidth of a slow-scan TV signal?

A. 600 Hz

B. 3 kHz

C. 2 MHz

D. 6 MHz




On which of the following frequencies is one likely to find FM ATV transmissions?

A. 14.230 MHz

B. 29.6 MHz

C. 52.525 MHz

D. 1255 MHz




What special operating frequency restrictions are imposed on slow scan TV transmissions?

A. None; they are allowed on all amateur frequencies

B. They are restricted to 7.245 MHz, 14.245 MHz, 21.345 MHz, and 28.945 MHz

C. They are restricted to phone band segments and their bandwidth can be no greater than that of a voice signal of the same modulation type

D. They are not permitted above 54 MHz










E2C -  Operating methods: contest and DX operating; remote operation techniques; Cabrillo format; QSLing; RF network connected systems




Which of the following is true about contest operating?

A. Operators are permitted to make contacts even if they do not submit a log

B. Interference to other amateurs is unavoidable and therefore acceptable

C. It is mandatory to transmit the call sign of the station being worked as part of every transmission to that station

D. Every contest requires a signal report in the exchange




Which of the following best describes the term self-spotting in regards to HF contest operating?

A. The generally prohibited practice of posting one’s own call sign and frequency on a spotting network

B. The acceptable practice of manually posting the call signs of stations on a spotting network

C. A manual technique for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a station’s frequency before calling that station

D. An automatic method for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a station’s frequency before calling that station




From which of the following bands is amateur radio contesting generally excluded?

A. 30 m

B. 6 m

C. 2 m

D. 33 cm




What type of transmission is most often used for a ham radio mesh network?

A. Spread spectrum in the 2.4 GHz band

B. Multiple Frequency Shift Keying in the 10 GHz band

C. Store and forward on the 440 MHz band

D. Frequency division multiplex in the 24 GHz band




What is the function of a DX QSL Manager?

A. To allocate frequencies for DXpeditions

B. To handle the receiving and sending of confirmation cards for a DX station

C. To run a net to allow many stations to contact a rare DX station

D. To relay calls to and from a DX station




During a VHF/UHF contest, in which band segment would you expect to find the highest level of activity?

A. At the top of each band, usually in a segment reserved for contests

B. In the middle of each band, usually on the national calling frequency

C. In the weak signal segment of the band, with most of the activity near the calling frequency

D. In the middle of the band, usually 25 kHz above the national calling frequency




What is the Cabrillo format?

A. A standard for submission of electronic contest logs

B. A method of exchanging information during a contest QSO

C. The most common set of contest rules

D. The rules of order for meetings between contest sponsors




Which of the following contacts may be confirmed through the U.S. QSL bureau system?

A. Special event contacts between stations in the U.S.

B. Contacts between a U.S. station and a non-U.S. station

C. Repeater contacts between U.S. club members

D. Contacts using tactical call signs




What type of equipment is commonly used to implement a ham radio mesh network?

A. A 2 meter VHF transceiver with a 1200 baud modem

B. An optical cable connection between the USB ports of 2 separate computers

C. A standard wireless router running custom software

D. A 440 MHz transceiver with a 9600 baud modem




Why might a DX station state that they are listening on another frequency?

A. Because the DX station may be transmitting on a frequency that is prohibited to some responding stations

B. To separate the calling stations from the DX station

C. To improve operating efficiency by reducing interference

D. All of these choices are correct




How should you generally identify your station when attempting to contact a DX station during a contest or in a pileup?

A. Send your full call sign once or twice

B. Send only the last two letters of your call sign until you make contact

C. Send your full call sign and grid square

D. Send the call sign of the DX station three times, the words "this is", then your call sign three times




What might help to restore contact when DX signals become too weak to copy across an entire HF band a few hours after sunset?

A. Switch to a higher frequency HF band

B. Switch to a lower frequency HF band

C. Wait 90 minutes or so for the signal degradation to pass

D. Wait 24 hours before attempting another communication on the band




What indicator is required to be used by U.S.-licensed operators when operating a station via remote control where the transmitter is located in the U.S.?

A. / followed by the USPS two letter abbreviation for the state in which the remote station is located

B. /R# where # is the district of the remote station

C. The ARRL section of the remote station

D. No additional indicator is required










E2D -  Operating methods: VHF and UHF digital modes and procedures; APRS; EME procedures, meteor scatter procedures




Which of the following digital modes is especially designed for use for meteor scatter signals?


B. FSK441

C. Hellschreiber





Which of the following is a good technique for making meteor scatter contacts?

A. 15 second timed transmission sequences with stations alternating based on location

B. Use of high speed CW or digital modes

C. Short transmission with rapidly repeated call signs and signal reports

D. All of these choices are correct




Which of the following digital modes is especially useful for EME communications?

A. FSK441


C. Olivia

D. JT65




What is the purpose of digital store-and-forward functions on an Amateur Radio satellite?

A. To upload operational software for the transponder

B. To delay download of telemetry between satellites

C. To store digital messages in the satellite for later download by other stations

D. To relay messages between satellites




Which of the following techniques is normally used by low Earth orbiting digital satellites to relay messages around the world?

A. Digipeating

B. Store-and-forward

C. Multi-satellite relaying

D. Node hopping




Which of the following describes a method of establishing EME contacts?

A. Time synchronous transmissions alternately from each station

B. Storing and forwarding digital messages

C. Judging optimum transmission times by monitoring beacons reflected from the Moon

D. High speed CW identification to avoid fading




What digital protocol is used by APRS?


B. 802.11

C. AX.25





What type of packet frame is used to transmit APRS beacon data?

A. Unnumbered Information

B. Disconnect

C. Acknowledgement

D. Connect




Which of these digital modes has the fastest data throughput under clear communication conditions? 


B. 170 Hz shift, 45 baud RTTY

C. PSK31

D. 300 baud packet




How can an APRS station be used to help support a public service communications activity?

A. An APRS station with an emergency medical technician can automatically transmit medical data to the nearest hospital

B. APRS stations with General Personnel Scanners can automatically relay the participant numbers and time as they pass the check points

C. An APRS station with a GPS unit can automatically transmit information to show a mobile station's position during the event

D. All of these choices are correct




Which of the following data are used by the APRS network to communicate your location?

A. Polar coordinates

B. Time and frequency

C. Radio direction finding spectrum analysis

D. Latitude and longitude




How does JT65 improve EME communications?

A. It can decode signals many dB below the noise floor using FEC

B. It controls the receiver to track Doppler shift

C. It supplies signals to guide the antenna to track the Moon

D. All of these choices are correct




What type of modulation is used for JT65 contacts?

A. Multi-tone AFSK



D. IEEE 802.11




What is one advantage of using JT65 coding?

A. Uses only a 65 Hz bandwidth

B. The ability to decode signals which have a very low signal to noise ratio

C. Easily copied by ear if necessary

D. Permits fast-scan TV transmissions over narrow bandwidth









E2E -  Operating methods: operating HF digital modes




Which type of modulation is common for data emissions below 30 MHz?

A. DTMF tones modulating an FM signal


C. Pulse modulation

D. Spread spectrum




What do the letters FEC mean as they relate to digital operation?

A. Forward Error Correction

B. First Error Correction

C. Fatal Error Correction

D. Final Error Correction




How is the timing of JT65 contacts organized?

A. By exchanging ACK/NAK packets

B. Stations take turns on alternate days

C. Alternating transmissions at 1 minute intervals

D. It depends on the lunar phase




What is indicated when one of the ellipses in an FSK crossed-ellipse display suddenly disappears?

A. Selective fading has occurred

B. One of the signal filters is saturated

C. The receiver has drifted 5 kHz from the desired receive frequency

D. The mark and space signal have been inverted




Which type of digital mode does not support keyboard-to-keyboard operation?

A. Winlink


C. PSK31





What is the most common data rate used for HF packet?

A. 48 baud

B. 110 baud

C. 300 baud

D. 1200 baud




What is the typical bandwidth of a properly modulated MFSK16 signal?

A. 31 Hz

B. 316 Hz

C. 550 Hz

D. 2.16 kHz




Which of the following HF digital modes can be used to transfer binary files?

A. Hellschreiber







Which of the following HF digital modes uses variable-length coding for bandwidth efficiency?



C. MT63

D. PSK31




Which of these digital modes has the narrowest bandwidth?


B. 170 Hz shift, 45 baud RTTY

C. PSK31

D. 300-baud packet




What is the difference between direct FSK and audio FSK?

A. Direct FSK applies the data signal to the transmitter VFO

B. Audio FSK has a superior frequency response

C. Direct FSK uses a DC-coupled data connection

D. Audio FSK can be performed anywhere in the transmit chain




Which type of control is used by stations using the Automatic Link Enable (ALE) protocol?

A. Local

B. Remote

C. Automatic

D. ALE can use any type of control




Which of the following is a possible reason that attempts to initiate contact with a digital station on a clear frequency are unsuccessful?

A. Your transmit frequency is incorrect

B. The protocol version you are using is not the supported by the digital station

C. Another station you are unable to hear is using the frequency

D. All of these choices are correct


Subelement E-1           Subelement E-2          Subelement E-3          Subbelement E-4          Subelement E-5
Subelement E-6           Subelement E-7          Subelement E-8          Subbelement E-9          Subelement E-0