 ## Amateur Extra Class Exam Question Pool- Subelement E-8

###### Subelement E-6           Subelement E-7          Subelement E-8          Subbelement E-9          Subelement E-0

SUBELEMENT E8 - SIGNALS AND EMISSIONS [4 Exam Questions - 4 Groups]

E8A -  AC waveforms: sine, square, sawtooth and irregular waveforms; AC measurements; average and PEP of RF signals; Fourier analysis; Analog to digital conversion: Digital to Analog conversion

E8A01

What is the name of the process that shows that a square wave is made up of a sine wave plus all of its odd harmonics?

A. Fourier analysis

B. Vector analysis

C. Numerical analysis

D. Differential analysis

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E8A02

What type of wave has a rise time significantly faster than its fall time (or vice versa)?

A. A cosine wave

B. A square wave

C. A sawtooth wave

D. A sine wave

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E8A03

What type of wave does a Fourier analysis show to be made up of sine waves of a given fundamental frequency plus all of its harmonics?

A. A sawtooth wave

B. A square wave

C. A sine wave

D. A cosine wave

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E8A04

What is "dither" with respect to analog to digital converters?

A. An abnormal condition where the converter cannot settle on a value to represent the signal

B. A small amount of noise added to the input signal to allow more precise representation of a signal over time

C. An error caused by irregular quantization step size

D. A method of decimation by randomly skipping samples

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E8A05

What would be the most accurate way of measuring the RMS voltage of a complex waveform?

A. By using a grid dip meter

B. By measuring the voltage with a D'Arsonval meter

C. By using an absorption wave meter

D. By measuring the heating effect in a known resistor

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E8A06

What is the approximate ratio of PEP-to-average power in a typical single-sideband phone signal?

A. 2.5 to 1

B. 25 to 1

C. 1 to 1

D. 100 to 1

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E8A07

What determines the PEP-to-average power ratio of a single-sideband phone signal?

A. The frequency of the modulating signal

B. The characteristics of the modulating signal

C. The degree of carrier suppression

D. The amplifier gain

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E8A08

Why would a direct or flash conversion analog-to-digital converter be useful for a software defined radio?

A. Very low power consumption decreases frequency drift

B. Immunity to out of sequence coding reduces spurious responses

C. Very high speed allows digitizing high frequencies

D. All of these choices are correct

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E8A09

How many levels can an analog-to-digital converter with 8 bit resolution encode?

A. 8

B. 8 multiplied by the gain of the input amplifier

C. 256 divided by the gain of the input amplifier

D. 256

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E8A10

What is the purpose of a low pass filter used in conjunction with a digital-to-analog converter?

A. Lower the input bandwidth to increase the effective resolution

B. Improve accuracy by removing out of sequence codes from the input

C. Remove harmonics from the output caused by the discrete analog levels generated

D. All of these choices are correct

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E8A11

What type of information can be conveyed using digital waveforms?

A. Human speech

B. Video signals

C. Data

D. All of these choices are correct

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E8A12

What is an advantage of using digital signals instead of analog signals to convey the same information?

A. Less complex circuitry is required for digital signal generation and detection

B. Digital signals always occupy a narrower bandwidth

C. Digital signals can be regenerated multiple times without error

D. All of these choices are correct

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E8A13

Which of these methods is commonly used to convert analog signals to digital signals?

A. Sequential sampling

B. Harmonic regeneration

C. Level shifting

D. Phase reversal

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E8B -  Modulation and demodulation: modulation methods; modulation index and deviation ratio; frequency and time division multiplexing; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

E8B01

What is the term for the ratio between the frequency deviation of an RF carrier wave and the modulating frequency of its corresponding FM-phone signal?

A. FM compressibility

B. Quieting index

C. Percentage of modulation

D. Modulation index

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E8B02

How does the modulation index of a phase-modulated emission vary with RF carrier frequency (the modulated frequency)?

A. It increases as the RF carrier frequency increases

B. It decreases as the RF carrier frequency increases

C. It varies with the square root of the RF carrier frequency

D. It does not depend on the RF carrier frequency

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E8B03

What is the modulation index of an FM-phone signal having a maximum frequency deviation of 3000 Hz either side of the carrier frequency when the modulating frequency is 1000 Hz?

A. 3

B. 0.3

C. 3000

D. 1000

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E8B04

What is the modulation index of an FM-phone signal having a maximum carrier deviation of plus or minus 6 kHz when modulated with a 2 kHz modulating frequency?

A. 6000

B. 3

C. 2000

D. 1/3

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E8B05

What is the deviation ratio of an FM-phone signal having a maximum frequency swing of plus-or-minus 5 kHz when the maximum modulation frequency is 3 kHz?

A. 60

B. 0.167

C. 0.6

D. 1.67

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E8B06

What is the deviation ratio of an FM-phone signal having a maximum frequency swing of plus or minus 7.5 kHz when the maximum modulation frequency is 3.5 kHz?

A. 2.14

B. 0.214

C. 0.47

D. 47

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E8B07

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a technique used for which type of amateur communication?

A. High speed digital modes

B. Extremely low-power contacts

C. EME

D. OFDM signals are not allowed on amateur bands

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E8B08

What describes Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing?

A. A frequency modulation technique which uses non-harmonically related frequencies

B. A bandwidth compression technique using Fourier transforms

C. A digital mode for narrow band, slow speed transmissions

D. A digital modulation technique using subcarriers at frequencies chosen to avoid intersymbol interference

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E8B09

What is meant by deviation ratio?

A. The ratio of the audio modulating frequency to the center carrier frequency

B. The ratio of the maximum carrier frequency deviation to the highest audio modulating frequency

C. The ratio of the carrier center frequency to the audio modulating frequency

D. The ratio of the highest audio modulating frequency to the average audio modulating frequency

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E8B10

What describes frequency division multiplexing?

A. The transmitted signal jumps from band to band at a predetermined rate

B. Two or more information streams are merged into a baseband, which then modulates the transmitter

C. The transmitted signal is divided into packets of information

D. Two or more information streams are merged into a digital combiner, which then pulse position modulates the transmitter

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E8B11

What is digital time division multiplexing?

A. Two or more data streams are assigned to discrete sub-carriers on an FM transmitter

B. Two or more signals are arranged to share discrete time slots of a data transmission

C. Two or more data streams share the same channel by transmitting time of transmission as the sub-carrier

D. Two or more signals are quadrature modulated to increase bandwidth efficiency

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E8C -  Digital signals: digital communication modes; information rate vs bandwidth; error correction

E8C01

How is Forward Error Correction implemented?

A. By the receiving station repeating each block of three data characters

B. By transmitting a special algorithm to the receiving station along with the data characters

C. By transmitting extra data that may be used to detect and correct transmission errors

D. By varying the frequency shift of the transmitted signal according to a predefined algorithm

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E8C02

What is the definition of symbol rate in a digital transmission?

A. The number of control characters in a message packet

B. The duration of each bit in a message sent over the air

C. The rate at which the waveform of a transmitted signal changes to convey information

D. The number of characters carried per second by the station-to-station link

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E8C03

When performing phase shift keying, why is it advantageous to shift phase precisely at the zero crossing of the RF carrier?

A. This results in the least possible transmitted bandwidth for the particular mode

B. It is easier to demodulate with a conventional, non-synchronous detector

C. It improves carrier suppression

D. All of these choices are correct

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E8C04

What technique is used to minimize the bandwidth requirements of a PSK31 signal?

A. Zero-sum character encoding

B. Reed-Solomon character encoding

C. Use of sinusoidal data pulses

D. Use of trapezoidal data pulses

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E8C05

What is the necessary bandwidth of a 13-WPM international Morse code transmission?

A. Approximately 13 Hz

B. Approximately 26 Hz

C. Approximately 52 Hz

D. Approximately 104 Hz

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E8C06

What is the necessary bandwidth of a 170-hertz shift, 300-baud ASCII transmission?

A. 0.1 Hz

B. 0.3 kHz

C. 0.5 kHz

D. 1.0 kHz

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E8C07

What is the necessary bandwidth of a 4800-Hz frequency shift, 9600-baud ASCII FM transmission?

A. 15.36 kHz

B. 9.6 kHz

C. 4.8 kHz

D. 5.76 kHz

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E8C08

How does ARQ accomplish error correction?

A. Special binary codes provide automatic correction

B. Special polynomial codes provide automatic correction

C. If errors are detected, redundant data is substituted

D. If errors are detected, a retransmission is requested

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E8C09

Which is the name of a digital code where each preceding or following character changes by only one bit?

A. Binary Coded Decimal Code

B. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

C. Excess 3 code

D. Gray code

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E8C10

What is an advantage of Gray code in digital communications where symbols are transmitted as multiple bits

A. It increases security

B. It has more possible states than simple binary

C. It has more resolution than simple binary

D. It facilitates error detection

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E8C11

What is the relationship between symbol rate and baud?

A. They are the same

B. Baud is twice the symbol rate

C. Symbol rate is only used for packet-based modes

D. Baud is only used for RTTY

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E8D -  Keying defects and overmodulation of digital signals; digital codes; spread spectrum

E8D01

A. Signals not using the spread spectrum algorithm are suppressed in the receiver

B. The high power used by a spread spectrum transmitter keeps its signal from being easily overpowered

C. The receiver is always equipped with a digital blanker

D. If interference is detected by the receiver it will signal the transmitter to change frequencies

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E8D02

What spread spectrum communications technique uses a high speed binary bit stream to shift the phase of an RF carrier?

A. Frequency hopping

B. Direct sequence

C. Binary phase-shift keying

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E8D03

How does the spread spectrum technique of frequency hopping work?

A. If interference is detected by the receiver it will signal the transmitter to change frequencies

B. If interference is detected by the receiver it will signal the transmitter to wait until the frequency is clear

C. A pseudo-random binary bit stream is used to shift the phase of an RF carrier very rapidly in a particular sequence

D. The frequency of the transmitted signal is changed very rapidly according to a particular sequence also used by the receiving station

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E8D04

What is the primary effect of extremely short rise or fall time on a CW signal?

A. More difficult to copy

B. The generation of RF harmonics

C. The generation of key clicks

D. Limits data speed

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E8D05

What is the most common method of reducing key clicks?

A. Increase keying waveform rise and fall times

B. Low-pass filters at the transmitter output

C. Reduce keying waveform rise and fall times

D. High-pass filters at the transmitter output

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E8D06

Which of the following indicates likely overmodulation of an AFSK signal such as PSK or MFSK?

A. High reflected power

B. Strong ALC action

C. Harmonics on higher bands

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E8D07

What is a common cause of overmodulation of AFSK signals?

A. Excessive numbers of retries

B. Ground loops

C. Bit errors in the modem

D. Excessive transmit audio levels

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E8D08

What parameter might indicate that excessively high input levels are causing distortion in an AFSK signal?

A. Signal to noise ratio

B. Baud rate

C. Repeat Request Rate (RRR)

D. Intermodulation Distortion (IMD)

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E8D09

What is considered a good minimum IMD level for an idling PSK signal?

A. +10 dB

B. +15 dB

C. -20 dB

D. -30 dB

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E8D10

What are some of the differences between the Baudot digital code and ASCII?

A. Baudot uses 4 data bits per character, ASCII uses 7 or 8; Baudot uses 1 character as a letters/figures shift code, ASCII has no letters/figures code

B. Baudot uses 5 data bits per character, ASCII uses 7 or 8; Baudot uses 2 characters as letters/figures shift codes, ASCII has no letters/figures shift code

C. Baudot uses 6 data bits per character, ASCII uses 7 or 8; Baudot has no letters/figures shift code, ASCII uses 2 letters/figures shift codes

D. Baudot uses 7 data bits per character, ASCII uses 8; Baudot has no letters/figures shift code, ASCII uses 2 letters/figures shift codes

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E8D11

What is one advantage of using ASCII code for data communications?

A. It includes built in error correction features

B. It contains fewer information bits per character than any other code

C. It is possible to transmit both upper and lower case text

D. It uses one character as a shift code to send numeric and special characters

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E8D12

What is the advantage of including a parity bit with an ASCII character stream?

A. Faster transmission rate

B. The signal can overpower interfering signals

C. Foreign language characters can be sent

D. Some types of errors can be detected