General Class Exam Question Pool- Subelement G-8
Subelement G-6 Subelement G-7 Subelement G-8 Subbelement G-9 Subelement G-0
SUBELEMENT G8 – SIGNALS AND EMISSIONS [3 Exam Questions – 3 Groups]
G8A - Carriers and modulation: AM; FM; single sideband; modulation envelope; digital modulation; overmodulation
How is an FSK signal generated?
A. By keying an FM transmitter with a sub-audible tone
B. By changing an oscillator’s frequency directly with a digital control signal
C. By using a transceiver’s computer data interface protocol to change frequencies
D. By reconfiguring the CW keying input to act as a tone generator
What is the name of the process that changes the phase angle of an RF wave to convey information?
A. Phase convolution
B. Phase modulation
C. Angle convolution
D. Radian inversion
What is the name of the process that changes the instantaneous frequency of an RF wave to convey information?
A. Frequency convolution
B. Frequency transformation
C. Frequency conversion
D. Frequency modulation
What emission is produced by a reactance modulator connected to a transmitter RF amplifier stage?
A. Multiplex modulation
B. Phase modulation
C. Amplitude modulation
D. Pulse modulation
What type of modulation varies the instantaneous power level of the RF signal?
A. Frequency shift keying
B. Phase modulation
C. Frequency modulation
D. Amplitude modulation
What is one advantage of carrier suppression in a single sideband phone transmission versus full carrier amplitude modulation?
A. Audio fidelity is improved
B. Greater modulation percentage is obtainable with lower distortion
C. Available transmitter power can be used more effectively
D. Simpler receiving equipment can be used
Which of the following phone emissions uses the narrowest bandwidth?
A. Single sideband
B. Double sideband
C. Phase modulation
D. Frequency modulation
Which of the following is an effect of overmodulation?
A. Insufficient audio
B. Insufficient bandwidth
C. Frequency drift
D. Excessive bandwidth
What control is typically adjusted for proper ALC setting on an amateur single sideband transceiver?
A. The RF clipping level
B. Transmit audio or microphone gain
C. Antenna inductance or capacitance
D. Attenuator level
What is meant by the term flat-topping when referring to a single sideband phone transmission?
A. Signal distortion caused by insufficient collector current
B. The transmitter's automatic level control (ALC) is properly adjusted
C. Signal distortion caused by excessive drive
D. The transmitter's carrier is properly suppressed
What is the modulation envelope of an AM signal?
A. The waveform created by connecting the peak values of the modulated signal
B. The carrier frequency that contains the signal
C. Spurious signals that envelop nearby frequencies
D. The bandwidth of the modulated signal
G8B - Frequency mixing; multiplication; bandwidths of various modes; deviation; duty cycle
What receiver stage combines a 14.250 MHz input signal with a 13.795 MHz oscillator signal to produce a 455 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal?
If a receiver mixes a 13.800 MHz VFO with a 14.255 MHz received signal to produce a 455 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal, what type of interference will a 13.345 MHz signal produce in the receiver?
A. Quadrature noise
B. Image response
C. Mixer interference
D. Intermediate interference
What is another term for the mixing of two RF signals?
D. Phase inverting
What is the stage in a VHF FM transmitter that generates a harmonic of a lower frequency signal to reach the desired operating frequency?
B. Reactance modulator
C. Pre-emphasis network
What is the approximate bandwidth of a PACTOR3 signal at maximum data rate?
A. 31.5 Hz
B. 500 Hz
C. 1800 Hz
D. 2300 Hz
What is the total bandwidth of an FM phone transmission having 5 kHz deviation and 3 kHz modulating frequency?
A. 3 kHz
B. 5 kHz
C. 8 kHz
D. 16 kHz
What is the frequency deviation for a 12.21 MHz reactance modulated oscillator in a 5 kHz deviation, 146.52 MHz FM phone transmitter?
A. 101.75 Hz
B. 416.7 Hz
C. 5 kHz
D. 60 kHz
Why is it important to know the duty cycle of the mode you are using when transmitting?
A. To aid in tuning your transmitter
B. Some modes have high duty cycles which could exceed the transmitter's average power rating.
C. To allow time for the other station to break in during a transmission
D. All of these choices are correct
Why is it good to match receiver bandwidth to the bandwidth of the operating mode?
A. It is required by FCC rules
B. It minimizes power consumption in the receiver
C. It improves impedance matching of the antenna
D. It results in the best signal to noise ratio
What is the relationship between transmitted symbol rate and bandwidth?
A. Symbol rate and bandwidth are not related
B. Higher symbol rates require wider bandwidth
C. Lower symbol rates require wider bandwidth
D. Bandwidth is always half the symbol rate
G8C – Digital emission modes
Which of the following digital modes is designed to operate at extremely low signal strength on the HF bands?
A. FSK441 and Hellschreiber
B. JT9 and JT65
How many data bits are sent in a single PSK31 character?
A. The number varies
What part of a data packet contains the routing and handling information?
Which of the following describes Baudot code?
A. A 7-bit code with start, stop and parity bits
B. A code using error detection and correction
C. A 5-bit code with additional start and stop bits
D. A code using SELCAL and LISTEN
In the PACTOR protocol, what is meant by an NAK response to a transmitted packet?
A. The receiver is requesting the packet be retransmitted
B. The receiver is reporting the packet was received without error
C. The receiver is busy decoding the packet
D. The entire file has been received correctly
What action results from a failure to exchange information due to excessive transmission attempts when using PACTOR or WINMOR?
A. The checksum overflows
B. The connection is dropped
C. Packets will be routed incorrectly
D. Encoding reverts to the default character set
How does the receiving station respond to an ARQ data mode packet containing errors?
A. It terminates the contact
B. It requests the packet be retransmitted
C. It sends the packet back to the transmitting station
D. It requests a change in transmitting protocol
Which of the following statements is true about PSK31?
A. Upper case letters make the signal stronger
B. Upper case letters use longer Varicode signals and thus slow down transmission
C. Varicode Error Correction is used to ensure accurate message reception
D. Higher power is needed as compared to RTTY for similar error rates
What does the number 31 represent in "PSK31"?
A. The approximate transmitted symbol rate
B. The version of the PSK protocol
C. The year in which PSK31 was invented
D. The number of characters that can be represented by PSK31
How does forward error correction (FEC) allow the receiver to correct errors in received data packets?
A. By controlling transmitter output power for optimum signal strength
B. By using the varicode character set
C. By transmitting redundant information with the data
D. By using a parity bit with each character
How are the two separate frequencies of a Frequency Shift Keyed (FSK) signal identified?
A. Dot and Dash
B. On and Off
C. High and Low
D. Mark and Space
Which type of code is used for sending characters in a PSK31 signal?